Prices of fuels are rising day by day and the standard vehicles are posing a threat to the environment with the green house emission effect. This has prompted researchers to look for alternative sources of energy. The internal combustion of the engine in vehicles are the biggest contributor to pollution. Hybrid cars are now growing in popularity and attention because of the environmental problems caused by fuel-run cars.
There are two main types of hybrid cars: parallel hybrids and series hybrids. The former has both gas engine and batteries for electric motor. The car is run by a small gas engine and when there is additional power required, the electric backup comes to the rescue. This is necessary for increasing the speed. Honda is using this kind of technology right now.
The series hybrids, on the other hand, has a generator powered by a gas engine. This generator charges the batteries and then gives power to the electric motor. The gas engine cannot power up the automobile on its own all the time. Its used only when most needed, normally it is just the electric motor which runs all the time. The mileage of this vehicle is better when most of the work is done by the electric motor. This technology is currently used by Toyota and Ford. The gas mileage in hybrid cars is better than what is available in traditional cars. The hybrid automobiles give output of 20 to 30 miles per gallon more than the standard automobiles. Hybrid cars automatically shut off the engine when you stop the automobile. You save a lot of fuel this way. When the gas pedal is pressed, the engine gets switched on automatically. The gas engine also starts charging the batteries automatically when they are on low power.
The gasoline burned in hybrid cars is much less and hence the pollution is also lot less. The vehicles do not emit as many gases in the air as the standard automobiles. Emission of carbon dioxide is also a lot less. Many scientists hold CO2 responsible for global warming.
Hybrid cars are made up of the following parts –
Gas engine – it is smaller and better in energy efficiency as compared to traditional automobiles.
Fuel tank – this is also a bit smaller because hybrid cars don’t need much gasoline
Electric motor – this acts both as a generator and motor. The latter collects energy from the batteries for powering up the car acceleration. Energy is sent back to the batteries when you slow down. After that, the batteries get automatically recharged.
Batteries – These are required in a series in order to power up the electric motor.
Transmission – it is needed to propel the vehicle forward just like the traditional cars which are powered by automobiles.
Energy is recovered to the battery from the electric motor. When you press the brake, the energy is transmitted from the motor to the battery again. This is called regenerative braking. It is needed to recharge the batteries and keep them in good working conditions.